These notes are based on the book How the Immune System Works by Lauren Sompayrac
Erythrocytes are called Red Blood Cells. They carry oxygen, but are not part of the immune system.
All others are leukocytes also called White Blood Cells and are involved in the immune system.
Monocytes are immature macrophages circulating in the blood.
Killer T cells are also called cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL).
Macrophages are stationed throughout possible entry points and wait for an attacker to eat.
Dendritic Cells carry antigens to lymph notes and present them to activate helper T cells and killer T cells.
The lymph system is where immune information is shared and B and T cells are activated.
Eosinophil cells and mast cells work with IgE antibodies (see below) to attack parasites.
Antigens are the targets of the immune system
Epitopes are the specific parts of antigens that are targeted.
Cytokines are molecules used for communication between body cells.
Natural killer cells, macrophages, B cells, and T cells all have activated states.
Good for bacteria, fungi, viruses that have not entered body cells
Of limited effectiveness once viruses have entered cells
C3b proteins are used to identify targets to be killed by macrophages and activated B cells.
C5-C9 proteins create a membrane attack complex that kills most viruses and bacteria.
Kill cells that have lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on their membranes but do not have Class I MHC molecules showing.
Kill cells when stimulated by Interferon-Alpha (IFN-Alpha) or Interferon-Beta (IFN-Beta)
Can make macrophages hyperactive by producing Interferon-Gamma (IFN-Gamma)
Hyperactive macrophages produce Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Interlukin-2 (IL-2) which further stimulates production of IFN-Gamma
Macrophages and neutrophils are collectively called professional phagocytes
Necessary to deal more completely with viruses that have entered body cells
Antibodies are the components of the immune system that attach to antigens
Antibodies are made by B Cells and can attach to organic molecules. Only those that do not attach to self molecules are allowed to mature.
Helps complement system identify antigens
Specialized for use near mucosal surfaces
Helps complement system
Helps NK cells kill
Boosts macrophage response
Defends agains parasites, involved in allergies
Made by activated B Cells, activated dendritic cells, and activated macrophages. These are collectively called antigen presenting cells (APC).
Present to Killer T cells pieces of antigens found inside of body cells
Present to helper and killer T cells pieces of antigens found outside of body cells
Activated by Helper T cell with CD40-CD40L match
Mature in Bone marrow
Target antigens outside of body cells, can hypermutate to improve specificity
Produce antibodies attached to surface - B Cell Receptors (BCR)
Spread free antibodies upon activation
Mature in Thymus
Target presented protein antigens from within body cells
Produce antibody-like molecules attached to surface - T Cell Receptors (TCR)
Activated by cell (B Cell, activated macrophage, activated dendritic cell) with B7-CD28 match and protein antigen presented by Class II MHC
Activates B cells, Killer T cells, and stimulates innate immune system
Produce cytokines that guide immune system operation
Destroys virus-infected cells, those with presented protein antigens
Both B and T cells have memory forms for future protection
Back to Book List page...
Last updated: March 7, 2013
Contact Craig Van Degrift if you have problems or questions with this web site.